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  • Bon a Savoir.




    François Duvalier, Simone Ovide Duvalier, Jean-Claude Duvalier et l'officier Henri Namphy (2e ligne).
    Last edited by Zouke; 08-27-2017, 08:32 PM.

  • #2



    This picture is about Mariage de Jean Claude Duvalier et Michele Bennett le 27 mai 1980.
    Last edited by Zouke; 01-07-2018, 05:17 PM.

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    • #3



      Jean Claude Duvalier
      Last edited by Zouke; 01-07-2018, 05:25 PM.

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      • #4



        Photo: Simone O. Duvalier entourée de ses deux filles Marie Denise et Simone Duvalier. | L'ère de Jn. Claude Duvalier (1971-74)
        "Un peuple sans mémoire est un peuple sans avenir"
        Last edited by Zouke; 12-03-2017, 04:22 PM.

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        • #5

          De gauche a droite: Leon Laleau, la secretaire de Jean-Paul Sartre, Morisseau Leroy, Rene Belance, Jean F. Brierre, Jean-Paul Sartre, Anthony Lespes, Rene Piquion.
          Last edited by Zouke; 01-07-2018, 05:28 PM.

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          • #6




            Colonel Démosthènes Pétrus Calixte, commandant Garde d'Haiti, 1934.Source Photo: Frantz Voltaire
            Last edited by Zouke; 07-15-2017, 05:19 PM.

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            • #7




              Installation Gral Antoine Levelt, 6 décembre 1950, comme chef d'Etat-major
              Last edited by Zouke; 07-15-2017, 05:37 PM.

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              • #8
                The Haitian Tuskegee Airmen



                Did you know that there were Haitians recruited to fight in World War II for the United States? In the early 1940s, an ad appeared in a Haitian newspaper recruiting 40 pilots for training at the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama.
                We know for sure that at least 5 pilots went for training at the Tuskegee Institute, and most of them were in the Haitian Army or Airforce. And we know their names:

                Ludovic Audant
                Philippe Célestin
                Raymond Cassagnol
                Eberle J.
                Guilbaud
                Nicolas Pelissier
                Alix Pasquet

                The first three men (Raymond Cassagnol, Alix Pasquet, and Philippe Célestin) left Port-au-Prince in February of 1943 for Alabama (Via Puerto Rico, via Miami via Jacksonville), and had to ride in a Blacks-Only transportation or had to sit in the back of trains, as blatant segregation was in full swing in those days, something they were totally unaccustomed to in Haiti. Cassagnol would later write in his autobiography Mémoires d’un Révolutionaire that he avoided going off the Tuskegee Army Training Field and off the campus, because he couldn’t stand to be made to feel inferior, and the humiliation that came with it.
                It was an exciting time for the three. The Afro American, one of the most popular and widely circulated black newspapers of the time, even had a feature story on the men in its April 10, 1943 issue. In it, it was revealed that Pasquet and Célestin were graduates of their native land’s Ecole Militaire D’Haiti, and were already officers, while Cassagnol had worked as a mechanic for the Haitian Airforce.
                World War II was in full swing and the USA was in need of soldiers, but Cassagnol maintains that the requirements were still very rigid, so much so that one of them didn’t make it. Célestin was a “washout”, a term used to describe someone who’s eliminated during training at Tuskegee. He succeeded in the Primary stage, and the Basic Stage, but was eliminated during the Upper Basic stage. Shortly after Cassagnol’s graduation, three more Haitian pilots were recruited from Haiti: Sergeant/Lieutenant Ludovic Audant and Sergeant/Lieutenant Nicolas Pelissier and Eberle Guilbaud.
                This is a photo of Eberle Guilbaud. According to the records of the Tuskegee Institute, Guilbaud graduated in April of 1944. Historians have indicated that he was born around 1920, so he was not even 25, when he completed pilot training at the Institute. He was to meet a terrible end. About 15 years later after his triumph, he was killed during a plane hijacking along with several others, when opponents of the Duvalier government hijacked a Haitian plane that was heading to Cuba.
                Alix Pasquetwas in the Haitian Airforce before becoming a Tuskegee Airman. According to Cassagnol’s autobiography, Pasquet got ill during training and as a result didn’t graduate at the same time as his compatriots.
                Here are some of the Haitian Tuskegee Airmen, looking over flight instructions during their training. Phillipe Célestin is the one in the far left.
                So what became of them after Tuskegee? We’ve already discussed Guilbaud. Cassagnol (in the insert photo to the right) was in a pilot in Haiti for a time and was an entrepreneur, owning various businesses. Then he went into exile, and lived in Alabama, then retired in Orlando, FL.



                Like Guilbaud, Célestin (nicknamed Phito, and seen in the little photo to the right) was to meet a terrible end. He was arrested for insubordination under the Francois Duvalier government one day, and was never to be heard from or seen again. Ever. As recounted in the book Haiti After the Duvaliers by Elizabeth Abbott, Pasquet (nicknamed Sonson) died a horrendous death. He was serving as the captain of the Haitian Army, then was exiled. From exile, he gathered up a couple of his army friends in Miami, including 5 Americans and planned an invasion of Haiti to get rid of Haitian president Francois Duvalier. Pasquet and his cohorts landed in St Marc and from there took over the army barracks headquarters in Port-au-Prince, according to the book From Glory to Disgrace: the Haitian army, 1804-1994 by Prosper Avril (a former president of Haiti and also an army officer).
                But his invasion was soon crushed when an escapee from the army barracks slipped, and someone from Pasquet’s camp sent one of the captives to buy cigarettes. The captive told the president and his men all that he had seen, and from there Pasquet was captured. He was killed along with his brother in law Philippe Dominique and friend Henri Perpignan, themselves two former officers in the Haitian army. Or more precisely, according to the book Red Heat: Terror, Conspiracy, and Murder in the Cold War Caribbean by Alex von Tunzelmann their heads were blown off with grenades. The 5 Americans that Pasquet had hired to take part in the invasion were also killed (shot). Then afterwards, their bodies were ordered to be displayed all over the streets of Port-au-Prince.
                Pasquet’s son Alix Pasquet Jr, would marry Michele Bennett, who after her divorce from him, would later marry Jean-Claude Duvalier, the son-successor of Francois Duvalier. And thus ended the life of the another of the Haitian Tuskegee Airmen.
                It would be years before the accomplishments of the Tuskegee Airmen would be acknowledged. Cassagnol, who would become the only surviving of the Tuskegee Airmen (Haitian or otherwise) was a special guest at the inauguration of US President Barack Obama in 2009. Decades before, he had been honored for his contributions to World War II as a Tuskegee Airman gunpilot in Italy, and years later his achievements were recognized by the USA as were that of Guilbaud and Pasquet. Pasquet’s son accepted his award on behalf of his late father.



                Here is a photo of Cassagnol in his later years, at 89 years old, the week of the Obama Inauguration. In April 2010, Cassagnol was again honored with a medal from Congress.

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                • #9

                  This is a photo of Eberle Guilbaud. According to the records of the Tuskegee Institute, Guilbaud graduated in April of 1944. Historians have indicated that he was born around 1920, so he was not even 25, when he completed pilot training at the Institute. He was to meet a terrible end. About 15 years later after his triumph, he was killed during a plane hijacking along with several others, when opponents of the Duvalier government hijacked a Haitian plane that was heading to Cuba.

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                  • #10




                    Alix Pasquet.

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                    • #11


                      Alix Pasquet was in the Haitian Airforce before becoming a Tuskegee Airman. According to Cassagnol’s autobiography, Pasquet got ill during training and as a result didn’t graduate at the same time as his compatriots.

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                      • #12

                        Here are some of the Haitian Tuskegee Airmen, looking over flight instructions during their training. Phillipe Célestin is the one in the far left.

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                        • #13


                          The story of the Duvaliers…

                          Simone Ovide was born in the city of Leogane, the illegitimate daughter of Jules Faine, a man of distinguished social standing and his maid Célie Ovide,some say in 1913. At one point, Miss Ovide gave up her daughter to an orphanage in the wealthy town of Pétionville. Some historians and writers have even used the word abandoned. No matter. Simone enrolled in a vocational program for nurses, and soon graduated.
                          Francois Duvalier was born on April 14, 1907. His father Duval Duvalier was a school teacher, and his mother Ulyssia (some records have Uritia) Abraham was a baker. Duvalier graduated from Haiti’s national medical school in 1936. Duvalier was in the United States for a brief time, attending the University of Michigan, where he later said he experienced a great deal of racism. In 1937, he co-founded the intellectual magazine Les Griots. He was deeply influenced by Lorimer Denis, a Haitian intellectual who favored Black Haitian power in Haiti.

                          While working as a nurse, Simone Ovide crossed paths with Dr. Francois Duvalier, and they eventually married. Their marriage produced four kids: Marie Denise, Nicole, Simone, and Jean-Claude.

                          As a medical doctor, he worked in Haiti’s most remote mountains, treating a disease called yaws. He was eventually selected as the General Director of Haiti’s National Public Health Service in the late 40s, and held the post of Minister of Public Health and Labor from 1948-1950 during the presidency of Dumarsais Estimé. Duvalier opposed Paul Eugene Magloire, one of Estimé’s successors, and went into hiding for a while.

                          Francois Duvalier became president in 1957. One of his opponents Clement Jumelle accused him of rigging the votes, and he (Jumelle) subsequently had to go in hiding with his family after a series of threats. On the day of Jumelle’s funeral, soldiers came and hijacked the hearse carrying him. According to the book Written in Blood by Michael Heinl and Col. Robert Heinl, Duvalier had requested that the body be taken to the National Palace where he was planning to extract Jumelle’s brain, reportedly to use in a religious rite. But an autopsy had already been performed on the body and the organs had already been taken out.




                          Simone Ovide Duvalier’s father Jules Faine died in August 1958 about a year after his unclaimed daughter was now ruling as First Lady in the National Palace. No word on whatever became of the First Lady’s mother.

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                          • #14


                            This is a photo taken of Francois Duvalier on voting day in 1957.

                            From 1957-1971, historians say that Haiti experienced what is called a brain drain: the country’s most elite and educated people left Haiti for France, Canada, the United States, Russia, Brazil, Switzerland, Belgium, Venezuela, Argentina, Liberia, Congo (alias Zaire), and Benin, among other countries. Writers like Marie Vieux Chauvet, and poets like Rene Dépestre, and thousands of others left Haiti and went into exile. Bernard Diedrich who has written several historical accounts of that period maintains that some entire families were imprisoned and murdered. Some were arrested never to be seen again. Several people (at times Duvalier’s own army officers, including former Tuskegee Airman Alix Pasquet Sr) tried to overthrow him through invasions and attempted bombings, to no avail.





                            In the early 1960s, Duvalier’s former ally Clement Barbot (seen here to the right, next to his brother Harry) attempted to overthrow him. Both were subsequently killed, according to Diedrich’s book.



                            Francois Duvalier, who had declared himself President for Life of Haiti in 1964, died in 1971, and prior to his death had requested that his son succeed him.

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                            • #15

                              In the 1920s, Haiti was being occupied by the U.S. Marines. Here we see a group of U.S. Marine soldiers patrolling the countryside, their rifles on their side, in this photo taken in 1921.

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